Hijack Execution Flow: DLL Side-Loading

Adversaries may execute their own malicious payloads by side-loading DLLs. Similar to DLL Search Order Hijacking, side-loading involves hijacking which DLL a program loads. But rather than just planting the DLL within the search order of a program then waiting for the victim application to be invoked, adversaries may directly side-load their payloads by planting then invoking a legitimate application that executes their payload(s).

Side-loading takes advantage of the DLL search order used by the loader by positioning both the victim application and malicious payload(s) alongside each other. Adversaries likely use side-loading as a means of masking actions they perform under a legitimate, trusted, and potentially elevated system or software process. Benign executables used to side-load payloads may not be flagged during delivery and/or execution. Adversary payloads may also be encrypted/packed or otherwise obfuscated until loaded into the memory of the trusted process.[1]

ID: T1574.002
Sub-technique of:  T1574
Platforms: Windows
Defense Bypassed: Anti-virus, Application control
Version: 2.0
Created: 13 March 2020
Last Modified: 26 April 2021

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
G0073 APT19

APT19 launched an HTTP malware variant and a Port 22 malware variant using a legitimate executable that loaded the malicious DLL.[2]

G0022 APT3

APT3 has been known to side load DLLs with a valid version of Chrome with one of their tools.[3][4]

G0050 APT32

APT32 ran legitimately-signed executables from Symantec and McAfee which load a malicious DLL. The group also side-loads its backdoor by dropping a library and a legitimate, signed executable (AcroTranscoder).[5][6][7]

G0096 APT41

APT41 used legitimate executables to perform DLL side-loading of their malware.[8]


BADNEWS typically loads its DLL file into a legitimate signed Java or VMware executable.[9][10]


DLL side-loading has been used to execute BBSRAT through a legitimate Citrix executable, ssonsvr.exe. The Citrix executable was dropped along with BBSRAT by the dropper.[11]

G0098 BlackTech

BlackTech has used DLL side loading by giving DLLs hardcoded names and placing them in searched directories.[12]


BRONZE BUTLER has used legitimate applications to side-load malicious DLLs.[13]

G0114 Chimera

Chimera has used side loading to place malicious DLLs in memory.[14]

S0660 Clambling

Clambling can store a file named mpsvc.dll, which opens a malicious mpsvc.mui file, in the same folder as the legitimate Microsoft executable MsMpEng.exe to gain execution.[15][16]

S0354 Denis

Denis exploits a security vulnerability to load a fake DLL and execute its code.[5]

S0624 Ecipekac

Ecipekac can abuse the legitimate application policytool.exe to load a malicious DLL.[17]

S0554 Egregor

Egregor has used DLL side-loading to execute its payload.[18]

S0182 FinFisher

FinFisher uses DLL side-loading to load malicious programs.[19][20]


GALLIUM used DLL side-loading to covertly load PoisonIvy into memory on the victim machine.[21]

S0032 gh0st RAT

A gh0st RAT variant has used DLL side-loading.[22]

S0477 Goopy

Goopy has the ability to side-load malicious DLLs with legitimate applications from Kaspersky, Microsoft, and Google.[6]

G0126 Higaisa

Higaisa’s JavaScript file used a legitimate Microsoft Office 2007 package to side-load the OINFO12.OCX dynamic link library.[23]

S0070 HTTPBrowser

HTTPBrowser has used DLL side-loading.[24]

S0398 HyperBro

HyperBro has used a legitimate application to sideload a DLL to decrypt, decompress, and run a payload.[25][26]

S0528 Javali

Javali can use DLL side-loading to load malicious DLLs into legitimate executables.[27]

S0585 Kerrdown

Kerrdown can use DLL side-loading to load malicious DLLs.[28]

G0032 Lazarus Group

Lazarus Group has replaced win_fw.dll, an internal component that is executed during IDA Pro installation, with a malicious DLL to download and execute a payload.[29]

S0582 LookBack

LookBack side loads its communications module as a DLL into the libcurl.dll loader.[30]

G0045 menuPass

menuPass has used DLL side-loading to launch versions of Mimikatz and PwDump6 as well as UPPERCUT.[31][32][33]

S0455 Metamorfo

Metamorfo has side-loaded its malicious DLL file.[34][35][36]

G0129 Mustang Panda

Mustang Panda has used a legitimately signed executable to execute a malicious payload within a DLL file.[37][38][39]

G0019 Naikon

Naikon has used DLL side-loading to load malicious DLL's into legitimate executables.[40]

S0630 Nebulae

Nebulae can use DLL side-loading to gain execution.[41]

S0664 Pandora

Pandora can use DLL side-loading to execute malicious payloads.[26]

G0040 Patchwork

A Patchwork .dll that contains BADNEWS is loaded and executed using DLL side-loading.[42]

S0013 PlugX

PlugX has used DLL side-loading to evade anti-virus.[4][24][43][31][44][15][45]

S0629 RainyDay

RainyDay can use side-loading to run malicious executables.[41]

S0662 RCSession

RCSession can be installed via DLL side-loading.[46][15][45]

S0074 Sakula

Sakula uses DLL side-loading, typically using a digitally signed sample of Kaspersky Anti-Virus (AV) 6.0 for Windows Workstations or McAfee's Outlook Scan About Box to load malicious DLL files.[47]

G0121 Sidewinder

Sidewinder has used DLL side-loading to drop and execute malicious payloads including the hijacking of the legitimate Windows application file rekeywiz.exe.[48]

S0663 SysUpdate

SysUpdate can load DLLs through vulnerable legitimate executables.[26]

S0098 T9000

During the T9000 installation process, it drops a copy of the legitimate Microsoft binary igfxtray.exe. The executable contains a side-loading weakness which is used to load a portion of the malware.[49]

G0027 Threat Group-3390

Threat Group-3390 has used DLL side-loading, including by using legitimate Kaspersky antivirus variants in which the DLL acts as a stub loader that loads and executes the shell code.[24][50][51][25]

G0081 Tropic Trooper

Tropic Trooper has been known to side-load DLLs using a valid version of a Windows Address Book and Windows Defender executable with one of their tools.[52][53]

S0579 Waterbear

Waterbear has used DLL side loading to import and load a malicious DLL loader.[12]

S0176 Wingbird

Wingbird side loads a malicious file, sspisrv.dll, in part of a spoofed lssas.exe service.[54][55]

S0230 ZeroT

ZeroT has used DLL side-loading to load malicious payloads.[56][57]


ID Mitigation Description
M1013 Application Developer Guidance

When possible, include hash values in manifest files to help prevent side-loading of malicious libraries.[1]

M1051 Update Software

Update software regularly to include patches that fix DLL side-loading vulnerabilities.


ID Data Source Data Component
DS0022 File File Creation
File Modification
DS0011 Module Module Load
DS0009 Process Process Creation

Monitor processes for unusual activity (e.g., a process that does not use the network begins to do so) as well as the introduction of new files/programs. Track DLL metadata, such as a hash, and compare DLLs that are loaded at process execution time against previous executions to detect differences that do not correlate with patching or updates.


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